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Glial cells and central nervous system (CNS)-infiltrating leukocytes contribute to multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the networks that govern crosstalk among these ontologically distinct populations remain unclear. Here, we show that, in mice and humans, CNS-resident astrocytes and infiltrating CD44hiCD4+ T cells generated interleukin-3 (IL-3), while microglia and recruited myeloid cells expressed interleukin-3 receptor-ɑ (IL-3Rɑ). Astrocytic and T cell IL-3 elicited an immune migratory and chemotactic program by IL-3Rɑ+ myeloid cells that enhanced CNS immune cell infiltration, exacerbating MS and its preclinical model. Multiregional snRNA-seq of human CNS tissue revealed the appearance of IL3RA-expressing myeloid cells with chemotactic programming in MS plaques. IL3RA expression by plaque myeloid cells and IL-3 amount in the cerebrospinal fluid predicted myeloid and T cell abundance in the CNS and correlated with MS severity. Our findings establish IL-3:IL-3RA as a glial-peripheral immune network that prompts immune cell recruitment to the CNS and worsens MS.

Original publication




Journal article



Publication Date





1502 - 1514.e8


astrocyte, chemokine, interleukin-3, microglia, monocyte, multiple sclerosis, neuroinflammation, recruitment, Mice, Animals, Humans, Multiple Sclerosis, Interleukin-3, Neuroglia, Central Nervous System, Microglia