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Hippocampal theta oscillations orchestrate faster beta-to-gamma oscillations facilitating the segmentation of neural representations during navigation and episodic memory. Supra-theta rhythms of hippocampal CA1 are coordinated by local interactions as well as inputs from the entorhinal cortex (EC) and CA3 inputs. However, theta-nested gamma-band activity in the medial septum (MS) suggests that the MS may control supra-theta CA1 oscillations. To address this, we performed multi-electrode recordings of MS and CA1 activity in rodents and found that MS neuron firing showed strong phase-coupling to theta-nested supra-theta episodes and predicted changes in CA1 beta-to-gamma oscillations on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Unique coupling patterns of anatomically defined MS cell types suggested that indirect MS-to-CA1 pathways via the EC and CA3 mediate distinct CA1 gamma-band oscillations. Optogenetic activation of MS parvalbumin-expressing neurons elicited theta-nested beta-to-gamma oscillations in CA1. Thus, the MS orchestrates hippocampal network activity at multiple temporal scales to mediate memory encoding and retrieval.

Original publication




Journal article


Nat Commun

Publication Date





Hippocampus, Neurons, Entorhinal Cortex, Theta Rhythm, Parvalbumins, Action Potentials, CA1 Region, Hippocampal