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Background: Although national efforts are underway to document the genomic variability of the Saudi population relative to other populations, such variability remains largely unexplored. Genetic variability is known to impact the fate of cells and increase or decrease the risk of a variety of complex diseases including cancer forms. Therefore, the identification of variants associated with cancer susceptibility in Saudi population may protect individuals from cancer or aid in patient-tailored therapies. The endo-lysosomal ion transport genes responsible for cationic ion homeostasis within the cell. We screened 703 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the endo-lysosomal ion transporter genes in the Saudi population and identified cancer-associated variants that have been reported in other populations. Methods: Utilizing previously derived local data of Whole-Exome Sequencing (WES), we examined SNPs of TPCN1, TPCN2, P2RX4, TRPM7, TRPV4, TRPV4, and TRPV6 genes. The SNPs were identified for those genes by our in-house database. We predicted the pathogenicity of these variants using in silico tools CADD, Polyphen-2, SIFT, PrimateAI, and FATHMM-XF. Then, we validated our findings by exploring the genetics database (VarSome, dbSNP NCB, OMIM, ClinVar, Ensembl, and GWAS Catalog) to further link cancer risk. Results: The WES database yielded 703 SNPs found in TPCN2, P2RX4, TRPM7, TRPV4, and TRPV6 genes in 1,144 subjects. The number of variants that were found to be common in our population was 150 SNPs. We identified 13 coding-region non-synonymous variants of the endo-lysosomal genes that were most common with a minor allele frequency (MAF) of ≥ 1 %. Twelve of these variants are rs2376558, rs3750965, rs61746574, rs35264875, rs3829241, rs72928978, rs25644, rs8042919, rs17881456, rs4987682, rs4987667, and rs4987657 that were classified as cancer-associated genes. Conclusion: Our study highlighted cancer-associated SNPs in the endo-lysosomal genes among Saudi individuals. The allelic frequencies on polymorphic variants confer susceptibility to complex diseases that are comparable to other populations. There is currently insufficient clinical data supporting the link between these SNPs and cancer risk in the Saudi population. Our data argues for initiating future cohort studies in which individuals with the identified SNPs are monitored and assessed for their likelihood of developing malignancies and therapy outcomes.

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Journal article


Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal

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