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Following in the footsteps of genomics and proteomics, metabolomics has revolutionised the way we investigate and understand biological systems. Rapid development in the last 25 years has been driven largely by technical innovations in mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. However, despite the modest size of metabolomes relative to proteomes and genomes, methodological capabilities for robust, comprehensive metabolite analysis remain a major challenge. Therefore, development of new methods and techniques remains vital for progress in the field. Here, we review developments in LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR methods in the last few years that have enhanced quantitative and comprehensive metabolome coverage, highlighting the techniques involved, their technical capabilities, relative performance, and potential impact.

Original publication




Journal article


Curr Opin Chem Biol

Publication Date





HILIC-MS, Hyphenated methods, IC-MS, Mass spectrometry, Methods, Mixed mode, NMR, Pure-shift NMR, Quantification, Ultrafast NMR