Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are stable protein cages derived from virus coats. They have been used extensively as biomolecular platforms, e.g., nanocarriers or vaccines, but a convenient in situ technique is lacking for tracking functional status. Here, we present a simple way to monitor disassembly of 19F-labeled VLPs derived from bacteriophage Qβ by 19F NMR. Analysis of resonances, under a range of conditions, allowed determination not only of the particle as fully assembled but also as disassembled, as well as detection of a degraded state upon digestion by cells. This in turn allowed mutational redesign of disassembly and testing in both bacterial and mammalian systems as a strategy for the creation of putative, targeted-VLP delivery systems.

Original publication




Journal article


J Am Chem Soc

Publication Date





5277 - 5280


Bacteriophage lambda, Fluorine, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular, Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle, Viral Proteins