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The incorporation of fluorine can not only significantly facilitate the study of proteins but also potentially modulate their function. Though some biosynthetic methods allow global residue-replacement, post-translational fluorine incorporation would constitute a fast and efficient alternative. Here, we reveal a mild method for direct protein radical trifluoromethylation at native residues as a strategy for symmetric-multifluorine incorporation on mg scales with high recoveries. High selectivity toward tryptophan residues enhanced the utility of this direct trifluoromethylation technique allowing ready study of fluorinated protein constructs using 19F-NMR.

Original publication




Journal article


J Am Chem Soc

Publication Date





1568 - 1571


Animals, Free Radicals, Hemeproteins, Horses, Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated, Molecular Structure, Myoglobin, Tryptophan