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The off-label use of nootropics by the healthy has always been surrounded by controversy. However, recent surges in their use across society (Maier et al., 2018), and the emerging popularity of DIY electrical stimulation techniques (Schuijer et al., 2017), have brought the questions surrounding cosmetic neuroscience sharply into focus. David Adam (2018), in his book, The Genius Within: Smart pills, brain hacks, and adventures in intelligence, seeks to address the efficacy of cognitive enhancement, and ask questions of society and legislators as to the extent to which we are ready to adopt their use.

Original publication




Journal article


Frontiers in Psychology


Frontiers Media

Publication Date