Dietary cystine level affects metabolic rate and glycaemic control in adult mice.
Elshorbagy AK., Church C., Valdivia-Garcia M., Smith AD., Refsum H., Cox R.
Plasma total cysteine (tCys) is strongly and independently associated with obesity in large human cohorts, but whether the association is causal is unknown. Dietary cyst(e)ine increases weight gain in some rodent models. We investigated the body composition, metabolic rate and metabolic phenotype of mature C3H/HeH mice assigned to low-cystine (LC) or high-cystine (HC) diets for 12 weeks. Compared to LC mice, HC mice gained more weight (P=.004 for 12-week weight gain %), with increased fat mass and lean mass, and lowered O₂ consumption and CO₂ production by calorimetry. The HC mice had 30% increase in intestinal fat/body weight % (P=.003) and ∼twofold elevated hepatic triglycerides (P=.046), with increased expression of hepatic lipogenic factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1. Gene expression of both basal and catecholamine-stimulated lipolytic enzymes, adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase was inhibited in HC mice adipose tissue. The HC mice also had elevated fasting glucose (7.0 vs. 4.5 mmol/L, P<.001) and a greater area under the curve (P<.001) in intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, with enhanced expression of the negative regulator of insulin signaling, protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B, in liver and adipose tissue. Overall, high cystine intake promotes adiposity and an adverse metabolic phenotype in mice, indicating that the positive association of plasma tCys with obesity in humans may be causal.