A systematic study of C-glucoside trisphosphates as myo-inositol trisphosphate receptor ligands. Synthesis of beta-C-glucoside trisphosphates based on the conformational restriction strategy.
Terauchi M., Abe H., Tovey SC., Dedos SG., Taylor CW., Paul M., Trusselle M., Potter BVL., Matsuda A., Shuto S.
Beta-C-glucoside trisphosphates having a C2 side chain (3,7-anhydro-2-deoxy-D-glycero-D-gulo-octitol 1,5,6-trisphosphate, 11) and a C3 side chain (4,8-anhydro-2,3-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-gulo-nonanitol 1,6,7-trisphosphate, 12) were designed as structurally simplified analogues of a potent D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor ligand, adenophostin A. Construction of the beta-C-glucosidic structure, which was the key to their synthesis, was achieved by two different methods based on the conformational restriction strategy: (1) radical cyclization with a temporary connecting silicon tether and (2) silane reduction of glyconolactols having an anomeric allyl substituent. Using these methods, the target beta-C-glycoside trisphosphates 11 and 12 were successfully synthesized. A structure-activity relationship was established on a series of C-glucoside trisphosphates, including the previously synthesized related compounds, which were a C-glycosidic analogue 3 of adenophostin A, its uracil congener 5, alpha-C-glucoside trisphosphates 7-9 having a C1, C2, or C3 side chain, and the beta-C-glucoside trisphosphates 10-12 having a C1, C2, or C3 side chain. The O-glycosidic linkage of adenophostin A and its analogues proved to be replaced by the chemically and biologically more stable C-glycosidic linkage. The alpha-C2-glucoside trisphosphate 8 stimulates Ca2+ release with a potency similar to that of IP3 in spite of its simplified structure, indicating a better fit to the receptor than the beta-C-glucoside trisphosphates and also the alpha-congeners having a shorter or longer C1 side chain, which was supported by molecular modeling using the ligand binding domain of the IP3 receptor.