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There is much evidence from animal work suggesting that the release of noradrenaline (NA) in the brain increases during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal, but the evidence in favour of changes in release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) is contradictory. Here we demonstrate, using in vivo microdialysis, that whilst there is a considerable increase (300%) in release of NA in hippocampus precipitated by naloxone in morphine-dependent rats, there is no change in the release of either 5-HT (in hippocampus) or DA (in nucleus accumbens). These results are consistent with suggestions that the symptoms of morphine withdrawal in rats are due primarily to an increase in central NA release.


Journal article



Publication Date





1043 - 1045


Animals, Dialysis, Dopamine, Hippocampus, Male, Morphine, Naloxone, Norepinephrine, Nucleus Accumbens, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Serotonin, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome