Structural determinants of adenophostin A activity at inositol trisphosphate receptors.
Correa V., Riley AM., Shuto S., Horne G., Nerou EP., Marwood RD., Potter BV., Taylor CW.
Adenophostin A is the most potent known agonist of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) receptors. Ca(2+) release from permeabilized hepatocytes was 9.9 +/- 1.6-fold more sensitive to adenophostin A (EC(50), 14.7 +/- 2.4 nM) than to InsP(3) (145 +/- 10 nM), consistent with the greater affinity of adenophostin A for hepatic InsP(3) receptors (K(d) = 0.48 +/- 0.06 and 3.09 +/- 0.33 nM, respectively). Here, we systematically modify the structures of the glucose, ribose, and adenine moieties of adenophostin A and use Ca(2+) release and binding assays to define their contributions to high-affinity binding. Progressive trimming of the adenine of adenophostin A reduced potency, but it fell below that of InsP(3) only after complete removal of the adenine. Even after substantial modifications of the adenine (to uracil or even unrelated aromatic rings, retaining the beta-orientation), the analogs were more potent than InsP(3). The only analog with an alpha-ribosyl linkage had massively decreased potency. The 2'-phosphate on the ribose ring of adenophostin A was essential and optimally active when present on a five-membered ring in a position stereochemically equivalent to its location in adenophostin A. Xylo-adenophostin, where xylose replaces the glucose ring of adenophostin A, was only slightly less potent than adenophostin A, whereas manno-adenophostin (mannose replacing glucose) had similar potency to InsP(3). These results are consistent with the relatively minor role of the 3-hydroxyl of InsP(3) (the equivalent is absent from xylo-adenophostin) and greater role of the equatorial 6-hydroxyl (the equivalent is axial in manno-adenophostin). This is the first comprehensive analysis of all the key structural elements of adenophostin A, and it provides a working model for the design of related high-affinity ligands of InsP(3) receptors.