Total synthesis of nucleobase-modified adenophostin A mimics.
Shuto S., Horne G., Marwood RD., Potter BV.
The adenophostins exhibit approximately 10-100 times higher receptor binding and Ca2+ mobilising potencies in comparison with the natural second messenger D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3]. Despite many synthetic attempts to determine the minimal structural requirement for this unusual behaviour of the adenophostins, few related simplified analogues displaying higher activity than that of Ins(1,4,5)P3 have been reported. However, biological evaluation of such analogues has revealed that one of the key factors for the enhanced biological activity is the adenine moiety. To further understand the effect that the adenine base has upon the activity of the adenophostins, congeners in which this functionality is replaced by uracil, benzimidazole, 2-methoxynaphthalene, 4-methylanisole and 4-methylnaphthalene using the common intermediate 1,2-di-O-acetyl-5-O-benzyl-3-O-(3,4-di-O-acetyl-2,6-di-O-benzyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-ribofuranose have been synthesised using a base replacement strategy. The synthesis of the uracil and benzimidazole analogues was achieved using the Vorbrüggen condensation procedure. The 1'-C-glycosidic analogues were prepared using Friedel-Crafts type C-aryl glycosidation reactions. Phosphate groups were introduced using the phosphoramidite method with subsequent removal of all-benzyl protecting groups by catalytic hydrogenation or catalytic hydrogen transfer. Apart from one analogue with an alpha-glycosidic linkage all compounds were more potent than Ins(1,4,5)P3 and most tended more towards adenophostin in activity. These analogues will be valuable tools to unravel the role that the adenine moiety plays in the potent activity of the adenophostins and demonstrate that this strategy is effective at producing highly potent ligands.