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© 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Tetanus toxin provides a reliable means of inducing recurrent spontaneous epileptic seizures in the hippocampus and neocortex. The hippocampal tetanus toxin model differs from other methods of inducing spontaneous limbic seizures in that it does not require status epilepticus, and it does not have major cell loss as an early component of the syndrome. Indeed, it has proved useful in showing that seizures can occur in the absence of gross pathology, and that long-term behavioral complications of seizures need not depend on neuronal loss, or ongoing epileptic activity.The characteristics of the neocortical models depend upon the area into which the toxin is introduced; interictal activity predominantly follows injection into sensory areas, but epilepsia partialis continua can occur, following injection into motor cortex. The frequent epileptiform abnormalities/seizures in these models make them ideal for testing new therapies. However, variation in the potency of commercially available toxin can prove problematic.

Original publication





Book title

Models of Seizures and Epilepsy: Second Edition

Publication Date



589 - 598