The bionode: A closed-loop neuromodulation implant
Pederson DJ., Quinkert CJ., Arafat MA., Somann JP., Williams JD., Bercich RA., Wang Z., Albors GO., Jefferys JGR., Irazoqui PP.
© 2019 Association for Computing Machinery. Implantable closed-loop neuromodulation devices for use in long-term chronic studies in a lab or clinical trial are expensive to acquire and difficult to modify for specific use cases. This article documents the design and fabrication of a wireless implantable device using only commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) components. This device, called the Bionode, can record and transmit up to four channels of biopotential data while simultaneously providing biphasic constant-current stimulation. The Bionode is a viable, low-cost, reusable, and easily modifiable research tool with clinical implications that has gained widespread use in various research projects at Purdue University.